## Saturday, August 22, 2020

### Mole Relations in Balanced Equations Example Problems

Mole Relations in Balanced Equations Example Problems These are worked science issues telling the best way to figure the quantity of moles of reactants or items in a reasonable synthetic condition. Mole Relations Problem #1 Decide the quantity of moles of N2O4 expected to respond totally with 3.62 mol of N2H4 for the response 2 N2H4(l) N2O4(l) Ã¢â€ ' 3 N2(g) 4 H2O(l). Instructions to Solve the Problem The initial step is to verify that the concoction condition is adjusted. Ensure the quantity of molecules of every component are the equivalent on the two sides of the condition. Recollect to increase the coefficient by all particles tailing it. The coefficient is the number before a concoction equation. Duplicate every addendum just by the molecule directly before it. The addendums are the lower numbers discovered promptly following an iota. When you confirm the condition is adjusted, you can set up the connection between the quantity of moles of reactants and items. Discover the connection between moles of N2H4 and N2O4 by utilizing the coefficients of the decent condition: 2 mol N2H4 is corresponding to 1 mol N2O4 In this manner, the transformation factor is 1 mol N2O4/2 mol N2H4: moles N2O4 3.62 mol N2H4 x 1 mol N2O4/2 mol N2H4 moles N2O4 1.81 mol N2O4 Answer 1.81 mol N2O4 Mole Relations Problem #2 Decide the quantity of moles of N2 created for the response 2 N2H4(l) N2O4(l) Ã¢â€ ' 3 N2(g) 4 H2O(l) when the response starts with 1.24 moles of N2H4. Arrangement This substance condition is adjusted, so the molar proportion of reactants and items might be utilized. Discover the connection between moles of N2H4 and N2 by utilizing the coefficients of the reasonable condition: 2 mol N2H4 is corresponding to 3 mol N2 For this situation, we need to go from moles of N2H4 to moles of N2, so the change factor is 3 mol N2/2 mol N2H4: moles N2 1.24 mol N2H4 x 3 mol N2/2 mol N2H4 moles N2 1.86 mol N2O4 Answer 1.86 mol N2 Tips for Success The keys to finding the right solution are: Ensure the concoction condition is balanced.Use the coefficients before mixes to get molar ratios.Check to ensure you utilize the fitting number of huge figures for nuclear masses and report mass utilizing the right number of figures.

## Wednesday, August 12, 2020

### Dysphoric Mania in Bipolar Disorder

Dysphoric Mania in Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder Print Dysphoric Mania in Bipolar Disorder Episodes With Mixed Features By Marcia Purse Marcia Purse is a mental health writer and bipolar disorder advocate who brings strong research skills and personal experiences to her writing. Learn about our editorial policy Marcia Purse Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on December 30, 2015 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on June 17, 2019 Bipolar Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes Treatment Living With In Children Your Rights Westend61/Getty Images Dysphoric mania is the term that was used in the past for what we now call an episode with  mixed features, though some health professionals may still use this term. Around 40 percent of people who are diagnosed with bipolar disorder experience episodes with mixed features. Understanding Dysphoria Dysphoria is a word that turns up often in the literature describing bipolar disorder. By definition, dysphoria is a profound state of unease or a general dissatisfaction with life. From a clinical standpoint, dysphoria suggests a serious depressive episode accompanied by a manic psychosis (the loss of external reality). As such, it is not considered a reasonable response to an event or stimulus but rather a feature of an ever-changing cycle in moods that can lead, often inexplicably, to profound episodes of emotional dysfunction. Simply put, dysphoria is a disconnect in emotion that has little or no relation to what is actually going on. Dysphoria is not only associated with bipolar disorder, its associated with other psychiatric and nonpsychiatric conditions. These can include schizophrenia, gender dysphoria, illicit drug use, and even premenstrual cycles (premenstrual dysphoric disorder). Diagnosis Dysphoric mania is not a term we use often these days but its one that can help clarify how dysphoria applies to bipolar disorder. In this instance, a bipolar person might concurrently exhibit signs of mania along with signs of depression. Today, this is described as a mixed feature of bipolar disorder. People with dysphoric mania or mixed features will experience at least three symptoms of mania with a depressive episode or at least three symptoms of depression with a manic or hypomanic episode. The symptoms can be wide-ranging but are ultimately characterized by a contradiction in action and state,  such as a person who is frenetic and loud even if he or she is emotionally drained and depressed. Symptoms of Mania Grandiosity and exaggerated feelings of self-importance Hallucinations or delusions Racing thoughts Rapid, frenzied speech (pressured speech) Recklessness and risk-taking behavior Aggressiveness or irritability Needing less sleep or not feeling tired Purposeless, often relentless, activity (psychomotor agitation) Symptoms of Depression Inexplicable crying or long periods of sadness Curtailed sleep or appetite Thoughts of death or suicide (suicidal ideation) Feelings of worthlessness or guilt Lethargy Losing interest in activities once enjoyed Social isolation Indecisiveness or confusion When these ranges of symptoms co-occur, the state can then be broadly described as being dysphoric, or what we now call a manic or hypomanic episode with mixed features or a depressive episode with mixed features. Treatment Options Its important to remember, first and foremost, that dysphoria is not a condition. It is a symptom in the same way that euphoria (intense feelings of happiness or well-being) is a symptom. As such, you do not treat dysphoria per se, but the underlying condition. With that being said, dysphoric/mixed episodes are often difficult to treat because the majority of drugs used to treat bipolar disorder address either depression or mania, not both. Antipsychotic drugs by themselves or along with lithium or anticonvulsants may be effective, but the process of finding the right combination can take time. Oftentimes, treatment is a process of trial-and-error. When dysphoria occurs in relation to a mixed episode, the risk of suicide is considered high. In people having suicidal thoughts or those whose behavior is erratic and intensifying, hospitalization may be needed. Get Help From the 9 Best Online Therapy Programs Treatment Is Essential Dysphoric mania is a serious disorder that needs immediate and ongoing treatment and support. If you or a loved one are experiencing symptoms of a mixed bipolar episode, seek help as soon as possible. Early intervention is often key to treatment success.