Wednesday, March 25, 2020

John Proctor Sinner Or Saint Essays - Salem Witch Trials

John Proctor: Sinner Or Saint? John Proctor, Sinner or Saint No person can completely steer clear of the trials and tribulations of his or her society. He who does may be vulnerable to serious allegations. If a man is to work well in his surroundings, he must partake in all aspects of his society or he is leaving himself open to unfavorable charges. In Arthur Millers, The Crucible, John Proctors lack of involvement in the Salem witch trials ultimately leads to his execution. John Proctor tries to avoid any involvement in the Salem witch trials. His reason for this attempt is motivated by his past fault of committing adultery with Abigail Williams. The guilt connected with his lechery makes Proctor hesitant to speak openly because he would condemn himself as an adulterer. Basically, then, in the first act he attempts to isolate himself from the primary proceedings, saying to Reverend Hale Ive heard you to be a sensible man, Mr. Hale. I hope youll leave some of it in Salem (Miller; 1106). Proctor tries to wash his hands of the entire affair, than to instead deal with his own personal problems. His wife Elizabeth constantly badgers him about his adulterous affair and he retorts with Let you look sometimes for the goodness in me, and judge me not (1117). Rather than interfering in the witch trials he is still trying to defend himself in the dangerous love triangle. In Act I, Proctor attempts to retire to the private world of his farm and remain completely oblivious to the events arising in Salem. This refusal to become involved is brought to an end when his servant, Mary Warren, announces that she is an official of the court and that Elizabeth Proctor has been somewhat mentioned(1119) by the woman who with whom he had copulated. Proctor still wishes to dismiss the hearings, but his wife uses his guilt about infidelity to extract a covenant that he will expose Abigail as being an impostor. Proctor is being coerced by his wife to become involved, it is not his free and open decision. Indirect characterization can be surmised in the aforesaid situation that Elizabeth is very influential upon Proctors character. This demonstrates that Proctors sense of guilt is central to any understanding of him as a dramatic character (Bloom; 26). Before Proctor is forced to take the next step, Reverend Hale arrives and then, Herrick with a warrant for Elizabeths arrest. In anger over his wifes conviction and arrest, Proctor accuses Hale of being a Pontius Pilate(1127) and later tells him that he is a coward by saying: though you be ordained in Gods own tears, you are a coward now!(1128). What Proctor fails to see is that he too has been acting as a Pontius Pilate and as a coward because he has been attempting to escape any type of involvement. These events force an involvement upon John Proctor, since the trials he has tried to ignore what have now invaded his private haven. His first step is still to avoid commitment. Proctor still refuses to go into the court and accuse Abigail openly, but instead tries to coerce Mary to go to the court. When reminded that Abigail will accuse him of lechery, however, he realizes how wicked Abigail is, and finally resolves to go with Mary Warren to the court where he takes his final step and denounces Abigail as a whore. As a result of his involvement, John finds himself accused of being a witch. After being tried and condemned to death, John refuses to confess because of his pride and stubbornness. However, he does not want to die for such an absurd reason. He is therefore faced with the predicament of being completely against the other condemned witches, and by his confession, becoming partly responsible for the deaths of his fellow prisoners. The other route open to him is to align himself completely with the condemned witches. There is finally no middle ground open to John Proctor. He must commit himself to one side or the other. His choice is to commit himself to his friends and die an honest man. The significant self-laceration which John Proctor undergoes while struggling to make his choice

Friday, March 6, 2020

Overpopulation vs Overconsumption Essays

Overpopulation vs Overconsumption Essays Overpopulation vs Overconsumption Paper Overpopulation vs Overconsumption Paper In the article Brazil: Amazon Deforestation Seen Surging, the author Reuters discusses the cause and effect of deforestation of the South American rainforests. Another article entitled Prevent Corals, Fish and Whales from Ocean Acidification written by the Center for Biological Diversity, approaches a different yet describes similar causes. Articles like these are being posted on the Internet constantly, causing people to question the source and suction Of these problems. In order for the solution to be found, the root of these problems must be brought to light. 1 2] In recent discussions regarding humans affect on the environment, the introverts lies with whether overpopulation or overcompensation is more harm to the environment, culture and the living conditions of future generations. The stakeholders affected by these issues are humans, including the general population (nationally and internationally), the government, and future generations. Societal consensus assumed that overpopulation is the main culprit. People often identify overpopulation with food shortages, farming of marginal lands, and detrimental effects on the environment. Another view highlights overcompensation as the main culprit because it rumps the negative effects of overpopulation. In sum, the question is whether our society should be more concerned about the large population growth occurring in places such as India, or the large amount of consumption in countries such as the U. S. Finding a solution to this issue will be complicated but is vital for those effected. The solution itself poses many questions: Who is responsible for the effects that are caused by overcompensation and overpopulation? Who will to take action and help solve the problem? How do we going to prevent further detriment to the earth and humanity? Overcompensation: Overcompensation has a detrimental affect on the environment, and our culture and our economy forces this issue into light. Those that believe that this is the main cause to these issues pose a good argument; their main point is that a small fraction of the worlds population consumes the majority of the resources being produced. While it may seem like overpopulation is the issue at hand, this view shows that this may not be true, by stating different facts and beliefs that shows otherwise. In a response to this controversy, a teacher in the SHiPS Teachers Network ousted a case study in which he or argues that overcompensation has more affect on humanity. The author makes it clear that he or she is biased, but gives facts that prove overcompensation is to blame. The teacher proves his or her point by stating some facts may be misconstrued. One author recently conveyed the alarming disparity in birth rates: in three generations, a German woman would have 6 descendants, in the U. S. , 14, and in Africa, 258. The implication, of course, was that by the middle of the next century, Africans would be depleting resources 18 times more quickly and damaging the environment 18 times more severely than people in industrialized nations. [5] This data leads one to believe that the main cause for the damage is overpopulation. But the author retorts with a strong argument to further his or her point. Who most affects the environment? According to one estimate, a person in the U. S. Has 50 times more adverse impact than someone in Bangladesh. An American, on the average, consumes 50 times as much steel and 300 times as much plastic as someone in India. When one examines consumption rather than just population, the environmental problem Of scarcity looks very different. The author then compares consumption to the campers familiar backcountry ethics saying, leave a campsite as you found it, his or her point is that people that consume more than they produce are doing something wrong. After reading this teachers response, one could easily come to the conclusion that overcompensation is to blame. 5] After further research, an equation was found that could calculate the impact on humanity by taking into account three simple variables. The following can sum up the equation. Impact is equal to population multiplied y affluence (per capita consumption) multiplied by the technology used to produce goods (energy, waste). Paul Earlier created this equation, his point being that per capita consumption and technology are just as sign ificant as the number of people when it comes to the impact on humanity. With this idea, it is easy to see how all three variables play an equal part in this issue. Overpopulation: While overcompensation seems to pose the greatest and most immediate threat, overpopulation is not to be ignored or taken lightly. In the world today, We kick at places like India and China and cringe when We hear the Vast mounts of people that live there. With an exponential growth rate, and reports of overcrowding in places all over the world, it is understandable that overpopulation is on the minds of the general population. While those who believe overpopulation is to blame, they understand that both issues pose a problem to the world today. Regardless of which has a bigger affect on earths resources, they accept the fact that most of the earths resources are being consumed by the few. The main argument that they make is that overcompensation is a huge problem, and overpopulation amplifies the impact that it has. In the article Where Should We Focus, author Michael Hander delves into the controversy of overcompensation versus overpopulation. In this article, Hander first approaches the argument by stating a common goal of both parties. He focuses on the idea that because of our current rate of consumption, and the fast growth rate of the population, humanity cannot be sustained. By comparing the consumption of large economic nations, and those of third world countries, Hander contrasts the lifestyles of the average American with that of one from a developing country. On the other hand, cost third world consumption levels are between 0. 5 and 5 percent of ours. This vast difference is not because these people recycle, use little plastic or dont drive a turbo-charged car O it IS because they have no car, no central heat, no refrigerator, and maybe no house at all! He then explains that Americans should not think of themselves as selfish as long as they consume at a reasonable rate. He goes on to state that Americans not only believe that they are morally right in consuming a reasonable amount, but they desire this level of consumption. Hander states, It is this lack of the most basic items, teems which most of us bel ieve every human should be able to have, which make up most of the consumption difference between the haves and the have onto We need to allow all of the worlds citizens a reasonable lifestyle while at the same time heading toward sustainability. Hander furthers his point by saying that overpopulation is more important in the long run. Keeping his previous ideas in mind, he makes the statement that overpopulation occurs at a lower point with a higher standard of living. This makes sense because the third world countries will be consuming these items Americans consider basic once they develop further, raising the overall consumption of the world. In order for this to be achieved, population needs to be lowered. In the mind of Hander overpopulation control is not just as important to sustaining the earth, but more important. 13] Common Ground: While all views on this topic understand that both arguments have importance, they each seem to find their own views of higher importance. But while they lack this ability to agree on who causes the most problems, they both take responsibility for the effects that they have on humanity and everything that is concerned. In order to make it easier, breaking up the effects of these two issues is essential. The effects on culture and the environment are the same, regardless of the cause, and will be covered thoroughly. To start, the most obvious effect of these two issues is displayed in the environment. As the population continues to grow, and consumption in 3rd world countries rises, we will eventually run out of room and supplies to sustain the general population. While this is a long-term affect that is unlikely to ever have a solution, there are short-term affects that inhibit our ability as unmans to enjoy living on this beautiful earth. As discussed in the introduction, deforestation and the decreasing numbers in fish, whales, and coral are examples of extreme effects on the environment. According to Amy Hardwood in the article Overpopulation and Extinction we are currently in Earths sixth mass extinction. In her article she estimates that 30,000 species are going extinct every year. Hardwood effectively shows a direct relationship between population increase, and extinction rate. She observes that this is the first of the 6 mass extinctions on earth to be caused by one species, and to planetary or galactic processes. With obvious examples displayed before us everyday, it would be ignorant to not acknowledge the detrimental effects that overpopulation and consumption are having on the environment. 7] Interestingly, overcompensation and overpopulation affect the way we live and have far reaching cultural effects. Because we see the harm that we are causing, we find it essential to do something in order to prevent this. This may be using less energy, recycling, buying less materialistic items, etc. A much deeper effects can be related directly to these issues. In an ar ticle Ritter by Knap Shah called Creating the Consumer, Shah expands the idea that consumption in America hasnt always been so abundant. To support this claim, the author highlights the mindset of Americans as early settlers or Europeans. He describes how living conservatively used to be the norm, and only the wealthy were able to live lavishly and spend excess amounts on comfort. This mindset was maintained by religion and social pressure because spending lavishly was frowned upon and considered wasteful. [2] In a Survey conducted by Hander, only 21 percent said they would be willing o do without a car and only 13 percent would forgo their Quarter-bounders with cheese. 13] then read, Overcompensation wont Save America by David Scrota. The description of an American that Scrota gave was that of a selfish and ignorant person. He describes the American mindset with the phrase shop till you drop, and mentions that it is a vital flaw in most Americans. The most recent holiday binge exemplified the impending crisis. Despite persistent unemployment, flat wages and higher prices for necessities (food, healthcare, etc. ), Ame rica nonetheless went on its usual post-Thanksgiving buying spree. This frustrated me, while at the same time motivating me to find a way to learn from his words. [1 0] When considering possible solutions, it is important to take all sides into account. While this may not seem possible due to the vast differences in opinions, it may be feasible. With this in mind it is key to look past the arguments posed by each side, and use the middle ground to find a solution. The question that needs an answer isnt which poses a greater threat to the world, the people who live here, and the people who will live here. But, it is how humans can work together to formulate a method to slow the institution of this earths resources and space. In order for this to be accomplished, it is key that both sides understand the importance of the opposing view. By reading through many articles and papers written from both point of views, it should be easier to formulate a plan. As they both have proven to be threats to the world, so too should the solution incorporate both problems. Overcompensation is the short-term problem of the two, and as such this problem should be solved first. There is no easy way to prevent higher output countries like America from consuming more than their fair share. But cause these places with higher consumption are shown to have a higher gap, we can infer that they also have a higher standard of education. While this is not true in all circumstances, it is true for America, and we definitely are to blame for consuming way over the average. With world population at 6 billion and rising, the richest 20% of humanity consumes 86% of all goods and services used, while the poorest fifth consumes just 1. 3%. [4] With this in mind, preventing overcompensation will have to Start in these higher educated, yet over consuming countries. The idea is to appeal to the nations tit higher education. With proof that material objects dont create happiness, it is important to show that the lower consuming, and lower standards of living may be a more appealing lifestyle. First, we need to recognize that there are more effective and satisfying ways to achi eve fulfillment than by simply buying more stuff. [9] In this article, Toward a Solution author Vicki Robin shows the relationship between the need for money, and unhappiness. She captivates the reader by showing that it is time spent doing what we love with people we love that makes us happy, and not mime spent earning money to buy more and more goods adjust cause stress and complications. Robin proves her point by stating, m{et surveys have shown that our happiness peaked in 1957, when families had smaller houses, 1 car (at most), 1 bathroom and 1 television (black white)and Vicars, personal computers and cordless phones didnt exist. Here lies the solution. This county was brought into debt and want for material needs through social pressure and advertising. By eliminating the idea that money buys happiness, and having more things will satisfy our wants, we should be able o reduce our consumption to reasonable levels. In order to do this the country will have to work as a whole. Children of this generation, while being spoiled and materialistic, seem to have seen the effects that this material wants have had on their parents and their lifestyles. People are saving more, learning to stay out of debt and manage their money more wisely. This is just the start but with a push, a lower and a more realistic standard of living may bloom. When it comes to overpopulation, there is no easy answer to this beast of a problem. Humans reproducing at an exponential rate will eventually use up ND destroy earth, as we know it. This is inevitable. But small changes to our culture and cultures around the world may slow this growth, and increase our time and happiness here. In my opinion the solution to this is simple. It doesnt include limiting the number of children couples can have, or killing those who dont deserve the space they are taking up. In my mind the solution to this is to enjoy our time while we can. This plays largely into the solution given for overcompensation.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Mortgage Law and the Vitiating Factors Case Study

Mortgage Law and the Vitiating Factors - Case Study Example The circumstance of evidential presumption comes to the fore when there existed a relationship of trust and confidence along with the happening of a transaction that calls for an explanation. These facts need to be proved in order to establish that there is prima facie evidence to claim that the transaction took place under undue influence. "The evidential burden gets shifted to the stronger party to counter the inference that he or she exercised undue influence on the weaker party." 1 Thus the presumption of undue influence is based on two elements; (i) existence of relationship of trust and confidence and (ii) there was entered a transaction that calls for explanation. There are certain established relationships of trust and confidence like that exists between guardian and ward, parent and child, religious leaders and disciples, doctor and patient and solicitor and client.2 With the proof of the relationship it becomes the legal presumption that there existed a relationship of influence between the parties. The relationship of influence can also be proved by the facts of the case. ... It is important that "a relationship of trust and confidence, reliance, dependence or vulnerability on one side and ascendancy, domination or control on the other side". It needs to be further proved that this relationship has made the vulnerable party agree with the course of action as suggested by the party who was dominant and that the situation was exploited fully to his/her advantage by the dominant party.3 However it is not necessary that there should be a continued existence of the state of dependence for arriving at evidential presumption.4 Therefore the important issue is the use of the influence in an undue manner and not its existence. The abuse of the trust placed by one party on another is considered critical. When it comes to the question of identifying what types of relationships give rise to trust and confidence it is observed in many of the cases people who are young and impressionable or elderly who are under some amount of physical or mental incapacity are being exploited to be unduly influenced.5 Then come the question of the measure of confidence and trust that needs to be placed on the other person. There are some distinguishing characteristics which decide the measure of trust and confidence like a duty on person A to adviser person B or the dominant position that person A possesses over person B. The dominant position may be real or potential. It is also observed that in all undue influence cases either of these characteristic features is present. However there cannot be a list of relationship that may give rise to trust and confidence since there are an infinite number of relationships that will result in trust. It is necessary to consider that whether one party has placed sufficient trust and confidence on

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Jazz concert report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Jazz concert report - Essay Example Susan is a pianist while Michael Zilber is a saxophonist. They were joined by other CJC members Jeff Chambers and Jason Lewis both played bass and drums consecutively. The concert lasted for an hour and forty minutes. Zilberella mainly played contemporary jazz pieces but they also interpreted standards of jazz. The jazz pieces they showcased include: - ‘UN POCO LOCO’ which is a style of jazz called Bright Latin. Medium –up swing jazz style had songs which included ‘bud Powell’ and ‘blues on the corner’. Another style of jazz included the bright swing which they sung to ‘Voyage’ together with a ballad ‘THE MEANING OF BLUES’. Interpretation of standards was showcased by the song ‘You leave me breathless’. Zilberella had no featured soloists as they each played a part to the songs. Furthermore, they covered everything but their areas of interest were in the showcasing of contemporary jazz music and standards of jazz. The performance of the group was amazing because Zilberella could actually read the audience’s mood and switch tempo and rhythm to suit the moods. They also effectively utilized the use of blue note in their performance. The key signature changes were the most amazing in the whole performances the audience was well catered for in terms of music. In my opinion I think Susan was the most talented. She played the piano but was also reading the crowd mood and organizing the group to make the necessary changes. Her ability to know how to switch the rhythm and tempos and changing keys was magnificent since it went smoothly and perfectly. Michael was also good at the saxophone since he played his heart out mixing his emotions and feelings in his facial expression. It was like he was acting out the song to the audience which made the audience and the group to connect. I must say that that Michaels way of silently talking to the audience through facial expressions and Susan’s ability to

Monday, January 27, 2020

Code Switching Linguistic Activity English Language Essay

Code Switching Linguistic Activity English Language Essay Code-switching is the linguistic activity when bilingual speakers use more than one language within one, and the same conversational context (Appel Muysken, 1987:117; Grosjean ,1982; Romaine, 1989). Researchers have come up with various reasons for what motivates bilingual speakers to code-switch. Two areas which have attracted widespread research are code-switching as a result of linguistic motivations, and the socially or psychologically motivated code-switching. Sometimes Bilingual speakers deliberately use words or lexis from another of the known languages when they lack a particular word in the language being spoken, to compensate for a linguistic need. In other words the easier accessibility of a word lexicon in the other language motivates them to use it. This is what is referred to as the most available word phenomenon (Grosjean 1982:151), as speakers consciously or unconsciously fall back to the easily accessible lexicon . Studies of second language speakers (L2) use of communication strategies have shown that bilinguals often resort to their first language (L1) intentionally to solve lexical communication problems in the L2 (Bialystok, 1983; Poulisse 1990). Olsen (1999) cites several instances where Norwegian children learning English unconsciously code-switch to Norwegian as a compensatory strategy due to lack of appropriate words. In line with this argument are models of some speech production that categorise bilingual languages in terms of their structural constraints within the speakers lexicon. Myers-Scotton (1992) makes a distinction between languages within what she referred to us matrix language frame model. In this model the language providing more morphemes for the relevant interaction type than the other languages used in the same conversation is the matrix language'(ML)( Myers-Scotton 1992:105). The matrix language plays the more dominant role in the conversation between bilinguals. The other language(s), which by comparison to ML have relatively fewer morphemes for that particular interaction are known as embedded language (EL). Myers-Scotton (1982) argues that the speaker always accesses ML lemmas and builds the morpho-syntactic frames on the basis of the relevant information contained in those lemmas. However, it is really difficult to pinpoint whether the matrix language framework consciously or unconsciously comes into play when a speaker switches codes. Socially Motivated Code-switching The socially motivated code switching, which is the most widely researched area has exposed numerous references. Socially or psychologically motivated code-switching may be practised when a speaker aims, in some instances, to emphasise their identity or group membership, or it may be that they want to mark a change of subject, to specify a particular addressee, to draw attention to a particular part of the message, to express certain emotions or to mark asides from the ongoing discourse (Grosjean 1982: 149-57; Appel and Muysken 1987: 118-20; Giesbers 1989:28). Some scholars have argued that most code-switching is intentional behaviour albeit without the speakers awareness ( Nortier 1989:4). There are cases, however, where unintended code-switching occur as a result of language interference . These may be referred to as incidental language switches, slips of the tongue or accidental speech errors ( Poulisse Bongaerts 1994: 37). As mentioned already, L2 speakers often resort to L1 intentionally to solve lexical communication problems in the L2 (Bialystock 1983). They may switch unintentionally, however, when L1 words are easily accessible in the place of the appropriate L2 ones . It would appear that there is an intersection between the linguistic and social motivations for code-switching. Myers-Scottons (1982) matrix language (ML) model imply that some languages are more dominant than others within a conversational context and, she also claims that language codes are indexical of social relationships (1989). In the latter case, through language code, a speaker is established as a certain kind of person in relation to others. She claims that language code specifically indexes a particular set of rights and obligations that will hold between participants in an interaction. In this regard, a speaker will select a code that indexes the rights and obligations that he/she wishes to be in force between himself and others. Myers-Scotton has identified different patterns of code-switching based on the notion of markedness. An unmarkedchoice means an expected choice, one that is associated with the type of interaction in which it occurs. This is an attempt to redefine relationship (Myers-Scotton 1989:334). She describes recorded instances of marked and unmarked choices of code-switching . The two examples, recorded in Kenya involves two friends and four young office workers. In the first instance, a Principal visits a friend who works in a car sales company. The Principal speaks Swahili to a guard at the gate, but switches to English when talking to the receptionist at the same organisation. At the friends office the two friends, who speak one L1 switch codes unmarkedly from Luhya (L1) to Swahili and sometimes to English. She argues that language in this instance is a mark of social identity. In the first instance, the Principal speaks Swahili to the guard at the gate because he places the guard among th e social category of those who speak Swahili but are not educated enough to be able to speak English. The receptionist, on the other hand belongs to another social category, that of those who can speak English. Marked choices, on the other hand may serve different functions. Among in-group members marked choices may, for instance, encode solidarity among a small number within the group ( Myers-Scotton 1989 :336) as the case of the young office workers illustrates. Four young office workers in the same government ministry in Nairobi are chatting. Two are Kikuyu, one is a Kisii and one is a Kalenjin. Swahili-English switching has been the unmarked choice when suddenly the two Kikuyu persons switch to their language. The conversation which was about setting up a group emergency fund suddenly stops when the Kikuyu switch to their language to make a disparaging remark about what has been said. This is a marked choice communicating solidarity between the two Kikuyu but distancing them from others. This action motivates the Kisii to complain in Swahili and English, and the Kalenjin makes a switch from Swahili to English , a marked choice, to return the discussion to a more business-like plane (Mye rs-Scotton 1989: 336). In other examples, marked codes may result from switching which are associated with emotion, social status or authority . In those instances, switches often encode more social distance between participants, sometimes out of anger or a desire to lower the addressee or increase ones own status. Codes-witching in this category is related to and indicative of group membership in particular speech communities (Auer 1998). The extent and the regularity with which they use two or more languages within a conversation may vary to a considerable degree between speech communities. This marked choice is usually associated with authority, more commonly in former colonial regimes where the colonisers language such as English was a mark of power (Myers-Scotton 1989 ). In all these activities the interlocutors are undertaking communication strategy to compensate for a social or linguistic inadequacy. Code-switching as Contextualisation Code-switching studies have also looked at strategic activities of speakers in varying their communicative behaviour within a socially agreed matrix of conventions, which are used to alert participants in the course of the on-going interaction to the social and situational context of the convention. Conversation participants appear to exploit variable spoken language elements at all linguistic levels ( Local 1986; Local et al 1986) and at non-verbal level ( Duncan 1969, 1972; Kendon 1977) to contextualise their suppositions. According to Gumperz (1982:132-135) contextualisation conventions or contextualisation cues function to signal participants orientation to each other. As an example, Chinese/ English bilingual speakers switch languages to contextualise preference organisation and repairs ( Weir Milroy 1995: 296). By building a contrast in language choice for two stretches of conversation , the speakers are able to draw attention to details of the projected course of conversation and to check each others understandings. This is relevant, particularly in contextualisation preference organisation. Preference organisation refers to ranking of alternative second parts of the so-called adjacency pairs, such as acceptance or refusal of an offer or agreement or disagreement with an assessment (Levinson 1983; Pomeranz 1984). Wei Milroy (1995: 281-299) demonstrate this in their study of code-switching among three generations of a Chinese community in the North Eastern part of England. In one context B offers her assessment of As new dress- ho leng very pretty . As response to this consists first of a reflective question in Chinese leng me ? pretty ?. This type of question is formed by partial repetition plus question marker me and has discourse similar to English tags such as isnt it? really?, suggesting that the interaction functions as a hedge heralding a further dispreferred assessment of dress, and indicates only a qualified agreement with Bs original assessment ( Pomeranz 1984). When B asks for confirmation in the following turn gua a guai a? expensive or not? , As preferred response is in Chinese the same language as Bs question. Sometimes code-switching is used primarily to contextualise imminent completion of a turn or talk or topic shifts, but at other times they have the capacity to signal meanings such as irony or seriousness, and social identities and attitudes of the participants. Auer (1984, 1991) has argued that bilingual code-switching should be analysed as a contextualisation cue, because it works in many ways like other contextualisation cues. However, code-switching has some characteristics of its own in addition to those it shares with such elements as gestures, prosodies and phonological variables. In particular, the sequential organisation of alternative choices of language provides a frame of reference for the interpretation of functions or meanings of conversational code-switching. Code-switching for Political and Economic Reasons Language choice and shift may also be due to political and economic reasons. People recognise that the official language becomes the vehicle of political participation and socio-economic mobility (Myers-Cotton 1993a:28). The competition among groups for primacy of one language over others, or at least parity with others is based on the supposed superiority of a language. If ethnic groups language become official, its members have a head start , while others have to try and identify with it. On the other hand, many nations, particularly those which were formerly colonised have always opted for their former colonial language choice or shifts due to its diversity and the fear of domination by others (Myers-Scotton 1983a). Thus, as already been illustrated, code-switching to a language such as English, French or Portuguese, for example, installs the speaker to a position of authority, power or social superiority over others in those multilingual communities formerly colonised . The distribution and use of language choices in multilingual communities, therefore, can reveal not only the extent of stability of intergroup relationships, but also the ways in which the regulation of access to symbolic resources is tied to the regulation of access to material ones ( Heller 1992:123). Code switching in this instance, therefore, may or may not be conventional depending on the setting or context of the conversation. For instance, we have mentioned where code-switching is an unmarked expected behaviour , for example, among peer in-groups and where it is marked and intended to put down someone considered to be inferior. In socio-political terms code-switching may represent part of a range of linguistic resources upon which people can draw to define the value of resources they control and to regulate access to them. In line with this argument, resources are distributed by specific groups in specific situations through the provision and evaluation, among other things, of symbolic, including verbal, performances (Heller 1992:123). A good example of this use of language is the French-English code-switching in a variety of settings in Quebec and Ontario Canada ( Heller 1992), where code-switching is used as a means of drawing on symbolic resources and deploying them in order to gain or deny access to these symbolic or material resources. The understanding being developed above builds on Bourdieus concepts of symbolic capital and symbolic market places, and Gumperzs concepts of speech economies and verbal repertoires (Bourdieu 1977, 1982; Gumperz 1982). In these instances code-switching is a means of calling into play specific forms of linguistic and cultural knowledge, forms which conventionally possess certain kinds of value (Heller 1992: 124). The value is linked to the extent to which these forms facilitate access to situations where other kinds of symbolic and material resources are distributed, resources which themselves have value based on prevailing modes of organisation of social life in the community and who controls them. The resources in question are not just those with concrete functional value but those related in more indirect ways to the methods people have of not only acquiring the basic things they need to survive, but also of acquiring various forms of power and solidarity ( Heller 1992: 123). Finally, in relation to the linguistic motivation to codeswitching is the grammatical theory and how this structures and explains it. Muysken (1995:178) argues that formulation of this is crucial for research in linguistics as a scientific discipline. He thus poses a number of important questions that may help to explain how lexicon and grammar of a language structure code-switching. Some of the questions relate to the extent to which we can rely on properties of individual words, when we produce and comprehend utterances, and to what extent we can rely on general rules of the language we speak. Other important questions relate to whether we can reduce the differences between languages to lexical differences. Muysken (1995) proposes a universal explanation , for instance, when sentences are built up with items drawn from lexicons from two languages. He proposes a model that believes there is a general set of constraints on code-switching, constituted, for example, by structural equiv alence (Poplack 1980) or government (Discuiullo, Muysken and Singh 1986), or matrix language embedded asymmetry (Myers-Scotton 1993a). In conclusion, it is clear that code-switching is a vast and complex linguistic area of knowledge. For instance, this discussion has illustrated the general and less complex cases of the practice whereby learners in L2 code-switch to their L1 unconsciously to compensate their poor grasp of L2 ( Olsen 1999; Grosjean 1982). The discussion then delved in greater detail into the socially motivated code-switching, where the concept of a matrix language and the idea markedness is demonstrated in a conversation among bilingual speakers (Myers-Scotton 1982; 1989). Using Myers-Scotton (1982) explanation of how a matrix language (ML) dominates over embedded language within a conversation context , and the concept of markedness the essay demonstrates how code-switching becomes a deliberate tool for bilinguals to perform certain linguistic acts, for example, that of showing their social positions of power, education or even to discriminate others. More complex sociolinguistic aspects of code-switching such as contextualisation and its use for political and economic reasons have been discussed. We have discussed how contextualisation in code-switching help to complete a conversation turn or talk or topic shifts, but how at other times they have they signal meanings such as irony or seriousness, and attitudes of the participants ( Wei and Milroy 1995). An important sociolinguistic discussion of this essay has been how code-switching is practised for political reasons. We have seen how there is competition among groups for primacy of one language over others based on the supposed superiority of a particular language. This essay considered how when an ethnic groups language becomes official, its members are assumed to have a head start , thereby motivating others to try and identify with this language. Furthermore, many nations, particularly those which were formerly colonised have always opted for their former colonial language choice or shifts because it is believed that it is diverse, and they also fear being dominated by others (Myers-Scotton 1983a). Finally were discussions on research proposals on the relation between grammar and code-switching. In relation to the linguistic motivation to codeswitching is the grammatical theory and how this structures and explains it. Muysken (1995:178) proposes a formulation of a model structured within earlier research.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Booker T. Washington (19th century) and Martin Luther King Jr. (20th century) Essay

I. INTRODUCTION For decades, Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) was the major African-American spokesman in the eyes of white America. Born a slave in Virginia, Washington was educated at Hampton Institute, Norfolk, Virginia. He began to work at the Tuskegee Institute in 1881 and built it into a center of learning and industrial and agricultural training. A handsome man and a forceful speaker, Washington was skilled at politics. Powerful and influential in both the black and white communities, Washington was a confidential advisor to presidents. For years, presidential political appointments of African-Americans were cleared through him. He was funded by Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller, dined at the White House with Theodore Roosevelt and family, and was the guest of the Queen of England at Windsor Castle. Although Washington was an accommodator, he spoke out against lynchings and worked to make â€Å"separate† facilities more â€Å"equal.† Although he advised African-Americans t o abide by segregation codes, he often traveled in private railroad cars and stayed in good hotels. Any number of historic moments in the civil rights struggle have been used to identify Martin Luther King, Jr. — prime mover of the Montgomery bus boycott, keynote speaker at the March on Washington, youngest Nobel Peace Prize laureate. But in retrospect, single events are less important than the fact that King, and his policy of nonviolent protest, was the dominant force in the civil rights movement during its decade of greatest achievement, from 1957 to 1968. II.BOOKER T. WASHINGTON A. HISTORY Booker T. Washington was born a slave in Hale’s Ford, Virginia, reportedly on April 5, 1856. After emancipation, his family was so poverty stricken that he worked in salt furnaces and coal mines beginning at age nine. Always an  intelligent and curious child, he yearned for an education and was frustrated when he could not receive good schooling locally. When he was 16 his parents allowed him to quit work to go to school. They had no money to help him, so he walked 200 miles to attend the Hampton Institute in Virginia and paid his tuition and board there by working as the janitor. Dedicating himself to the idea that education would raise his people to equality in this country, Washington became a teacher. He first taught in his home town, then at the Hampton Institute, and then in 1881, he founded the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama. As head of the Institute, he traveled the country unceasingly to raise funds from blacks and whites both; soon he became a well-known speaker. In 1895, Washington was asked to speak at the opening of the Cotton States Exposition, an unprecedented honor for an African American. His Atlanta Compromise speech explained his major thesis, that blacks could secure their constitutional rights through their own economic and moral advancement rather than through legal and political changes. Although his conciliatory stand angered some blacks who feared it would encourage the foes of equal rights, whites approved of his views. Thus his major achievement was to win over diverse elements among southern whites, without whose support the programs he envisioned and brought into being would have been impossible. In addition to Tuskegee Institute, which still educates many today, Washington instituted a variety of programs for rural extension work, and helped to establish the National Negro Business League. Shortly after the election of President William McKinley in 1896, a movement was set in motion that Washington be named to a cabinet post, but he withdrew his name from consideration, preferring to work outside the political arena. He died on November 14, 1915. From 1872 to 1875, he attended the Hampton Institute, an industrial school for blacks in Hampton, Virginia. He became a teacher at the institute in 1879. Washington based many of his educational theories on his training at Hampton. In 1881, Washington founded and became principal of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. He started this school in an old abandoned church and a shanty. The school’s name was later changed to Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University). The school taught specific trades, such as carpentry, farming, and mechanics, and trained teachers. As it expanded, Washington  spent much of his time raising funds. Under Washington’s leadership, the institute became famous as a model of industrial education. The Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site, established in 1974, includes Washington’s home, student-made college buildings, and the George Washington Carver Museum. Though Washington offered little that was innovative in industrial edu cation, which both northern philanthropic foundations and southern leaders were already promoting, he became its chief black exemplar and spokesman. In his advocacy of Tuskegee Institute and its educational method, Washington revealed the political adroitness and accommodationist philosophy that were to characterize his career in the wider arena of race leadership. He convinced southern white employers and governors that Tuskegee offered an education that would keep blacks â€Å"down on the farm† and in the trades. To prospective northern donors and particularly the new self- made millionaires such as Rockefeller and Carnegie he promised the inculcation of the Protestant work ethic. To blacks living within the limited horizons of the post- Reconstruction South, Washington held out industrial education as the means of escape from the web of sharecropping and debt and the achievement of attainable, petit-bourgeois goals of self-employment, landownership, and small business. Washington cultivated local white approval and secured a small state appropriation, but it was northern donations that made Tuskegee Institute by 1900 th e best-supported black educational institution in the country. Washington was married three times. His first wife, Fannie N. Smith, his sweetheart from Malden, gave birth to a child in 1883, the year after their marriage, but died prematurely the next year. In 1885 Washington married Olivia Davidson; they had two children. This too was a short marriage, for she had suffered from physical maladies for years and died in 1889. Four years later he married Margaret J. Murray, a Fisk graduate who had replaced Davidson as lady principal. She remained Washington’s wife for the rest of his life, helping to raise his three children and continuing to play a major role at Tuskegee. As Tuskegee Institute grew it branched out into other endeavors. The annual Tuskegee Negro Conferences, inaugurated in 1892, sought solutions for impoverished black farmers through crop diversity and education. The National Negro Business League, founded in 1900, gave encouragement to black enterprises and publicized their successes. Margaret Washington hosted women’s conferences on campus. Washington established National Negro Health Week and called attention to minority health issues in addresses nationwide. By the mid-1880s Washington was becoming a fixture on the nation’s lecture circuit. This exposure both drew attention and dollars to Tuskegee and allowed the black educator to articulate his philosophy of racial advancement. In a notable 1884 address to the National Education Association in Madison, Wisconsin, Washington touted education for Negroes–â€Å"brains, property, and character†Ã¢â‚¬â€œas the key to black advancement and acceptance by white southerners. â€Å"Separate but equal† railroad and other public facilities were acceptable to blacks, he argued, as long as they really were equal. This speech foreshadowed the accommodationist racial compromises he would preach for the rest of his life. During the 1880s and 1890s Washington went out of his way to soft-pedal racial insults and attacks on blacks (including himself) by whites. He courted southern white politicians who were racial moderates, arguing that black Americans had to exhibit good citizenship, hard work, and elevated character in order to win the respect of the â€Å"better sort† of whites. Full political and social equality would result in all due time, he maintained. B. GOALS Washington believed that blacks could benefit more from a practical, vocational education rather than a college education. Most blacks lived in poverty in the rural South, and Washington felt they should learn skills, work hard, and acquire property. He believed that the development of work skills would lead to economic prosperity. Washington predicted that blacks would be granted civil and political rights after gaining a strong economic foundation. He explained his theories in Up from Slavery and in other publications. During Booker’s lifetime, many African Americans were former slaves who did not have an education. Booker’s goal was to provide African Americans with opportunities to learn vocational skills and obtain an  education. He thought former slaves would gain acceptance through education and financial independence. C. METHODS In the late 1800’s, more and more blacks became victims of lynchings and Jim Crow laws that segregated blacks. To reduce racial conflicts, Washington advised blacks to stop demanding equal rights and to simply get along with whites. He urged whites to give blacks better jobs. In a speech given in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1895, Washington declared: â€Å"In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress.† This speech was often called the Atlanta Compromise because Washington accepted inequality and segregation for blacks in exchange for economic advancement. The speech was widely quoted in newspapers and helped make him a prominent national figure and black spokesman. Washington became a shrewd political leader and advised not only Presidents, but also members of Congress and governors, on political appointments for blacks and sympathetic whites. He urged wealthy people to contribute to v arious black organizations. He also owned or financially supported many black newspapers. In 1900, Washington founded the National Negro Business League to help black business firms. Throughout his life, Washington tried to please whites in both the North and the South through his public actions and his speeches. He never publicly supported black political causes that were unpopular with Southern whites. However, Washington secretly financed lawsuits opposing segregation and upholding the right of blacks to vote and to serve on juries. Washington offered black acquiescence in disfranchisement and social segregation if whites would encourage black progress in economic and educational opportunity. Washington’s position so pleased whites, North and South, that they made him the new black spokesman. He became powerful, having the deciding voice in Federal appointments of African Americans and in philanthropic grants to black institutions. Through subsidies or secret partnerships, he controlled black newspapers, stifling critics. Overawed by his power and hoping his tactics would work, many blacks went along. However, increasingly during his last years, such black intellectuals as W.E.B. Du Bois, John Hope, and  William Monroe Trotter denounced his surrender of civil rights and his stressing of training in crafts, some obsolete, to the neglect of liberal education. Opposition centered in the Niagara Movement, founded in 1905, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, which succeeded it in 1910. Washington’s power involved not only close relationships with influential white political leaders and industrialists but also a secret network of contacts with journalists and various organizations. He schemed with white and black Alabamians to try to keep other black schools from locating near Tuskegee. He engineered political appointments for supporters in the black community as a way of solidifying his own power base. He planted spies in organizations unfriendly to him to report on their activities and at one time even used a detective agency briefly. Despite public denials, Washington owned partial interests in some minority newspapers. This allowed him to plant stories and to influence their news coverage and editorial stands in ways beneficial to himself. Beginning in the mid-1880s, and lasting for some twenty years, he maintained a clandestine relationship with T. Thomas Fortune, editor of the New York Age, the leading black newspaper of its day. He helped support the paper financially, was one of its stockholders, and quietly endorsed many of Fortune’s militant stands for voting and other civil rights and against lynching. He also supported the Afro-American League, a civil rights organization founded by Fortune in 1887. Washington secretly provided financial and legal support for court challenges to all-white juries in Alabama, segregated transportation facilities, and disfranchisement of black voters. As black suffrage decreased nonetheless around the turn of the century, Washington struggled to keep a modicum of black influence and patronage in the Republican party in the South. From 1908 to 1911 he played a major, though covert, role in the successful effort to get the U.S. Supreme Court to overturn a harsh Alabama peonage law under which Alonzo Bailey, a black Alabama farmer, had been convicted. 1. DISSENT: Lawful Rights Booker T. Washington’s methods included speeches, arguments, and agreements with both races; blacks and whites, without having to associate violence to achieve these goals. D. ACCOMPLISHMENTS â€Å"h As Washington’s influence with whites and blacks grew he reaped several honors. In 1901 he wrote a bestseller called Up From Slavery – his autobiography. He also became an advisor to the President of the United States – Theodore Roosevelt. He became the first black ever to dine at the White House with the President. This created a huge scandal. Many white people thought that it was wrong for whites and blacks to mix socially, and for their President to do it horrified them. Roosevelt defended his actions at the time, and he continued to ask for Washington’s advice, but he never invited him back. Eventually Washington’s leadership of blacks began to decline. It became apparent that the white people that had gained control of Southern institutions after Reconstruction did not ever want the civil and political status of blacks to improve – regardless of how hard they worked or how much character they had. They passed laws to keep them from voting and to keep them from mixing with whites in schools, stores and restaurants. Many blacks came to believe that a more forceful, demanding approach was needed. By the last years of his life, Washington had moved away from many of his accommodationist policies. Speaking out with a new frankness, Washington attacked racism. In 1915 he joined ranks with former critics to protest the stereotypical portrayal of blacks in a new movie, â€Å"Birth of a Nation.† Some months later he died at age 59. A man who overcame near-impossible odds himself, Booker T. Washington is best remembered for helping black Americans rise up from the economic slavery that held them down long after they were legally free citizens. Was chosen in 1861 to head the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute â€Å"h Caused Tuskegee Institute to grow into one of the world’s leading centers of education for African-Americans â€Å"h Founded the National Negro Business League in 1900 â€Å"h Advised Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft on racial matters â€Å"h Wrote an autobiography, Up From Slavery in 1901 â€Å"h Stressed the importance of education and employment for African-Americans â€Å"h Became a chief spokesperson for his race â€Å"h Advocated cooperation between the races â€Å"h His views caused strife with other African-American leaders, especially W.E.B. Dubois, although in his later years he began to agree with them on the best methods to achieving equality Close analysis of Washington’s autobiographies and speeches reveals a vagueness and subtlety to his message lost on most people of his time, whites and blacks alike. He never said that American minorities would forever forgo the right to vote, to gain a full education, or to enjoy the fruits of an integrated society. But he strategically chose not to force the issue in the face of the overwhelming white hostility that was the reality of American race relations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In this sense, he did what he had to do to assure the survival of himself and the people for whom he spoke. III.MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. A. HISTORY King was born on Jan. 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. He was the second oldest child of Alberta Williams King and Martin Luther King. He had an older sister, Christine, and a younger brother, A. D. The young Martin was usually called M. L. His father was pastor of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. One of Martin’s grandfathers, A. D. Williams, also had been pastor there. In high school, Martin did so well that he skipped both the 9th and 12th grades. At the age of 15, he entered Morehouse College in Atlanta. King became an admirer of Benjamin E. Mays, Morehouse’s president and a well-known scholar of black religion. Under Mays’s influence, King decided to become a minister. King was ordained just before he graduated from Morehouse in 1948. He entered Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, to earn a divinity degree. King then went to graduate school at Boston University, where he got a Ph.D. degree in theology in 1955. In Boston, he met Coretta Scott of Marion, Alabama, a music student. They were married in 1953. The Kings had four children–Yolanda, Dexter, Martin, and Bernice. In 1954, King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. In December 5, 1955 King began to be significant in the changing of the Black man’s way of life. The boycott of the Montgomery Bus was begun when Rosa Parks refused to surrender her seat on a bus to a white man on December 1st. Two Patrolmen took her away to the police station where she was booked. He and 50 other ministered held a meeting and agreed to start a boycott on December 5th, the day of Rosa Parks’s hearing. This boycott would probably be successful since 70% of the riders were black. The bus company did not take them seriously, because if there was bad weather, they would have to take the bus. The Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA)was established to co-ordinate the boycott. They had a special agreement with black cab companies, in which they were allowed to get a ride for a much cheaper price than normal. Blacks had to walk to work, and so they did not have time to do any shopping and therefore the sales decreased dramatically. On January 30, while M.L was making a speech, his house was bombed. Luckily his wife and baby had left the living room when the bomb exploded, but a black mob formed and was angry about what had happened, and Policemen were sent to the scene to control the situation, even though they were outnumbered. King, however, because of his strong belief in nonviolence, urged the crowd to not use their guns and to go home. What made Martin Luther King striking was his conviction on non-violence. He believed that this belief could give blacks a superior level of morality over whites. This ideology was important for his success in later years. As a result, it helped restrain the use of violence from  whites to blacks and vice versa. This philosophy was tested during the Montgomery bus boycott. Before the successful boycott, blacks used violence in order to protest racism. During the boycott, however, on both sides violence was not a measure to be taken. When someone bombed King’s home,the fact that violence was used against a nonviolent group made the idea of the black man’s cause more agreeable. B. GOALS In 1967, King became more critical of American society than ever before. He believed poverty was as great an evil as racism. He said that true social justice would require a redistribution of wealth from the rich to the poor. Thus, King began to plan a Poor People’s Campaign that would unite poor people of all races in a struggle for economic opportunity. The campaign would demand a federal guaranteed annual income for poor people and other major antipoverty laws. Also in 1967, King attacked U.S. support of South Vietnam in the Vietnam War (1957-1975). He regarded the South Vietnamese government as corrupt and undemocratic. Many supporters of the war denounced King’s criticisms, but the growing antiwar movement welcomed his comments. Dr. King and the SCLC organized drives for African-American voter registration, desegregation, and better education and housing throughout the South. Dr. King continued to speak. He went to many cities and towns. He was  greeted by crowds of people who wanted to hear him speak. He said all people have the right to equal treatment under the law. Many people believed in these civil rights and worked hard for them Dr. King believed that poverty caused much of the unrest in America. Not only poverty for African-Americans, but poor whites, Hispanics and Asians. Dr. King believed that the United States involvement in Vietnam was also a factor and that the war poisoned the atmosphere of the whole country and made the solution of local problems of human relations unrealistic This caused friction between King and the African-American leaders who felt that their problems deserved priority and that the African-American leadership should concentrate on fighting racial injustice at home. But by early 1967 Dr. King had become associated with the antiwar movement Dr. King continued his campaign for world peace. He traveled across America to support and speak out about civil rights and the rights of the underprivileged C. METHODS King’s civil rights activities began with a protest of Montgomery’s segregated bus system in 1955. That year, a black passenger named Rosa Parks was arrested for disobeying a city law requiring that blacks give up their seats on buses when white people wanted to sit in their seats or in the same row. Black leaders in Montgomery urged blacks to boycott (refuse to use) the city’s buses. The leaders formed an organization to run the boycott, and asked King to serve as president. In his first speech as leader of the boycott, King told his black colleagues: â€Å"First and foremost, we are American citizens. †¦ We are not here advocating violence. †¦ The only weapon that we have †¦ is the weapon of protest. †¦ The great glory of American democracy is the right to protest for right.† Terrorists bombed King’s home, but King continued to insist on nonviolent protests. Thousands of blacks boycotted the buses for over a year. In 1956, the United States Supreme Court ordered Montgomery to provide equal, integrated seating on public buses. The boycott’s success won King national fame and identified him as a symbol of Southern blacks’ new efforts to fight racial injustice. With other black ministers, King founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957 to expand the nonviolent struggle against racism and discrimination. At the time, widespread segregation existed throughout the South in public schools, and in transportation, recreation, and such public facilities as hotels and restaurants. Many states also used various methods to deprive blacks of their voting rights. In 1960, King moved from Montgomery to Atlanta to devote more effort to SCLC’s work. He became co-pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church with his father In the North, however, King soon discovered that young and angry blacks cared little for his preaching and even less for his pleas for peaceful protest. Their disenchantment was one of the reasons he rallied behind a new cause: the war in Vietnam. Although he was trying to create a new coalition based on equal support for peace and civil rights, it caused an immediate rift. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) saw King’s shift of emphasis as â€Å"a serious tactical mistake† the Urban League warned that the â€Å"limited resources† of the civil-rights movement would be spread too thin; But from the vantage point of history, King’s timing was superb. Students, professors, intellectuals, clergymen and reformers rushed into the movement. Then, King turned his attention to the domestic issue that he felt was directly related to the Vietnam struggle: poverty. He called for a guaranteed family income, he threatened national boycotts, and he spoke of disrupting entire cities by nonviolent â€Å"camp-ins.† With this in mind, he began to plan a massive march of the poor on Washington, D.C., envisioning a demonstration of such intensity and size that Congress would have to recognize and deal with the huge number of desperate and downtrodden Americans. King interrupted these plans to lend his support to the Memphis sanitation men’s strike. He wanted to discourage violence, and he wanted to focus national attention on the plight of the poor, unorganized workers of the city. The men were bargaining for basic union representation and long-overdue raises. But he never got back to his poverty plans. 1. DISSENT Lawful Rights: While at seminary King became acquainted with Mohandas Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolent social protest. On a trip to India in 1959 King met with followers of Gandhi. During these discussions he became more convinced than ever that nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience was the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for freedom. He also used his speeches and demonstrations as tools to accomplish his goals such as: the â€Å"I Have A Dream† Speech, and the Montgomery Bus Boycott. D. ACCOMPLISHMENTS An African American Baptist minister, was the main leader of the civil rights movement in the United States during the 1950’s and 1960’s. He had a magnificent speaking ability, which enabled him to effectively express the demands of African Americans for social justice. King’s eloquent pleas won the support of millions of people–blacks and whites–and made him internationally famous. He won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for leading nonviolent civil rights demonstrations. In spite of King’s stress on nonviolence, he often became the target of violence. White racists threw rocks at him in Chicago and bombed his home in Montgomery, Alabama. Finally, violence ended King’s life at the age of 39, when an assassin shot and killed him. Some historians view King’s death as the end of the civil rights era that began in the mid-1950’s. Under his leadership, the civil rights movement won wide support among whites, and laws that had barred integration in the Southern States were abolished. King  became only the second American whose birthday is observed as a national holiday. The first was George Washington, the nation’s first president. King and other civil rights leaders then organized a massive march in Washington, D.C. The event, called the March on Washington, was intended to highlight African-American unemployment and to urge Congress to pass Kennedy’s bill. On Aug. 28, 1963, over 200,000 Americans, including many whites, gathered at the Lincoln Memorial in the capital. The high point of the rally, King’s stirring â€Å"I Have a Dream† speech, eloquently defined the moral basis of the civil rights movement. The movement won a major victory in 1964, when Congress passed the civil rights bill that Kennedy and his successor, President Lyndon B. Johnson, had recommended. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited racial discrimination in public places and called for equal opportunity in employment and education. King later received the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize. In 1965, King helped organize protests in Selma, Ala. The demonstrators protested against the efforts of white officials there to deny most black citizens the chance to register and vote. Several hundred protesters attempted to march from Selma to Montgomery, the state capital, but police officers used tear gas and clubs to break up the group. The bloody attack, broadcast nationwide on television news shows, shocked the public. King immediately announced another attempt to march from Selma to Montgomery. Johnson went before Congress to request a bill that would eliminate all barriers to Southern blacks’ right to vote. Within a few months, Congress approved the Voting Rights Act of 1965 By 1965, King had come to believe that civil rights leaders should pay more attention to the economic problems of blacks. In 1966, he helped begin a major civil rights campaign in Chicago, his first big effort outside the South. Leaders of the campaign tried to organize black inner-city residents who suffered from unemployment, bad housing, and poor schools. The leaders also protested against real estate practices that kept blacks from living in many neighborhoods and suburbs. King believed such practices played a major  role in trapping poor blacks in urban ghettos. King and the local leaders also organized marches through white neighborhoods. But angry white people in these segregated communities threw bottles and rocks at the demonstrators. Soon afterward, Chicago officials promised to encourage fair housing practices in the city if King would stop the protests. King accepted the offer, and the Chicago campaign ended. IV.COMPARING/CONTRASTING Washington kept his white following by conservative policies and moderate utterances, but he faced growing black and white liberal opposition in the Niagara Movement (1905-9) and the NAACP (1909-), groups demanding civil rights and encouraging protest in response to white aggressions such as lynchings, disfranchisement, and segregation laws. Washington successfully fended off these critics, often by underhanded means. At the same time, however, he tried to translate his own personal success into black advancement through secret sponsorship of civil rights suits, serving on the boards of Fisk and Howard universities, and directing philanthropic aid to these and other black colleges. His speaking tours and private persuasion tried to equalize public educational opportunities and to reduce racial violence. These efforts were generally unsuccessful, and the year of Washington’s death marked the beginning of the Great Migration from the rural South to the urban North. Washington’s racial philosophy, pragmatically adjusted to the limiting conditions of his own era, did not survive the change. Martin Luther King’s contributions to our history places him in this inimitable position. In his short life, Martin Luther King was instrumental in helping us realize and rectify those unspeakable flaws which were tarnishing the name of America. The events which took place in and around his life were earth shattering, for they represented an America which was hostile and quite different from America as we see it today. Black Americans needed a Martin Luther King, but above all America needed him. The significant qualities of this special man cannot be underestimated nor taken  for granted. Within a span of 13 years from 1955 to his death in 1968 he was able to expound, expose, and extricate America from many wrongs. His tactics of protest involved non-violent passive resistance to racial injustice. It was the right prescription for our country, and it was right on time. Hope in America was waning on the part of many Black Americans, but Martin Luther King, Jr. provided a candle along with a light. He also provided this nation with a road map so that all people could locate and share together in the abundance of this great democracy. We honor Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. because he showed us the way to mend those broken fences and to move on in building this land rather than destroying it. He led campaign after campaign in the streets of America and on to the governor’s mansion – even to the White House – in an effort to secure change.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Reading habits Essay

A habit is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur unconsciously. Habits can be categories as either good habits or bad habits. Bad habits are negative behavior pattern. Examples of bad habits are gambling, smoking, overspending, and procrastination. Whereas, good habits are behavior that is beneficial to one’s physical and mental health and often linked to a high level of discipline and self-control. For example, regular exercise, balanced diet, and reading are good habits. The quote â€Å"We first make our habits, and then our habits make us† from an English poet, John Dryden. It means at first we are in control of our behavior and we can determine which habits we would like to practice. But, when we practice the habits, it will influence our life no matter it is good habit or bad habit. Thus, it is better for everyone to foster the good habits and break the bad habits. And, the best time to correct a bad habit is immediately. If you have a bad habit like gambling, then it is better to quit it now before you become bankrupt due to this bad habit. However, if you have good reading habit, you should continue this practice. Reading is the process of recognizing the written words and understands their meaning. It is a complex interaction between text and reader. Reader’s prior knowledge, experiences, attitude and language are related to the reading process. People can have their reading through book, magazine, newspaper, and electronic displays such as mobile phones or e-readers. There are many benefits of reading habits. Reasons why reading habits is good and important: 1. Expose to new things By reading, we expose ourselves to new knowledge and information. We learn the new ways to solve a problem and new ways to achieve our goals. Besides that, we also can develop our new hobbies through reading. For instance, when read cuisine book, it may influence our interest in cooking. We improve our knowledge in various fields and expand our thinking to wider views. In  addition, exploration begins from reading and understanding. For example, a backpacker start his travel experience by reading travelling magazines and understand more about the culture and environment of the country before his exploration from one country to another country. 2. Self-improvement Self-improvement is the improvement of one’s knowledge, status, or character by one’s own efforts. People can improve themselves by practice reading habits. Reading habits help us to build self-confidence. It helps us to become a better person. We improve ourselves by reading newspaper, novels, and historical books. All the books we read will be the assets in our mind. And, reading variety of books also known as one type of investment on ourselves. Through reading, we create a structured path towards a better understanding of ourselves and know the better choices to make in our life. 3. Mental stimulation Reading helps to keep our brain active and prevent it from losing power. That is because brain is functioned when we are reading. Sometimes, we also need to think and try to understand what we are reading. The reading process is the good way to stimulate our mental and enhance our cognitive mental ability. Thus, reading habits can prevent older age diseases and slow down the progress of Alzheimer’s. 4. Stress reduction Reading habit is a relaxing hobby. People choose to read when they feel stress and tension from their routine work and daily life. For example, reading a well-written novel can transport the reader to other realms. It can take you away from reality and drain away the pressures. Many people prefer to read a book and forget all their cares and worries for a while as they experiences and enjoy the peace and tranquility through reading. 5. Stronger analytical and thinking skills When read an amazing mystery novel, we put on analytical and critical thinking skills throughout the reading. We improve our ability by analyzing the plots and try to figure out the developing plot or mystery. Sometimes, the writer use high-context in their writing. As a reader, we need to analyze the deeper meanings behind the story. Every story gives different  learning outcomes and it depends on how the reader analyze on it. 6. Boost imagination and creativity Books are beyond imagination. It likes a huge spider web, where you keep linking to more new things and knowledge. By practicing reading habits, we expand our thinking from a narrow angle to wider angle. We explore a different perspectives to see the things and understand how different actions lead to different results. Reading is vital for children to develop imagination and creativity. Fairy tales in the story book give the children to imagine what going on in the story although it is not happened in reality. 7. Better writing skills The more you read, the more words you exposure to and the more you understand about one thing. The vocabulary words and knowledge in certain field improve our writing skills. People come out with many ideas when they read more and know more vocabulary. For them, writing an essay within a short time just a piece of cake. 8. Memory improvement Reading improves the memory and helps to exercise and boost your memory powers. When we read, the reading materials will enter our memory system and when we able to remember back what we reading before. The reading habits improve our memory and enhance our ability to memorize things. For instance, students read the reference books during exam and able to memorize the important points when they are sitting for the examination. Day by day, their memory ability is improved and they able to apply what they learned in their daily life. Business Growth of Hussain by reading habits Based on the case study, reading habits help Hussain to grow faster in the business world. Initially, Hussain sold chocolate in the market every morning in order to earn income for his family. Due to his unique habits of reading, his uncle offered a classical book for him to read. After Hussain finished reading the book, he got an offer from an old man to sell that book at double price. For gaining more money, he bought two more copies of the same book and managed to sell them within three hours. He noticed that  people are in need of good books. Hence, he decided to sell books along with his chocolate business. When Hussain realized the profits earned from book sales much better than the chocolate sales, he stopped his chocolate business. He distributed free chocolate as the marketing strategy for his new business of selling books. He was a good reader as well as a good trader. He bought the books from small hawkers or vendors and successfully sold the books with double profits. He still practices his reading habits while selling the books in the market. However, he faced the problem of lacking a shop to keep all the books. Hussain was an ambitious person. He looked at things differently by believing the book sales can gain more profits in the future. He asked his uncle to convert his father’s steel workshop into a bookshop. He owned his bookshop and it was the first bookshop in that area. This made him became the monopoly in that market since he is the sole bookseller at there. No competitors and competition with others for his business. Besides that, Hussain knew his products well. He had good knowledge of all the available books in his bookshop. In addition, Hussain able to answer his customers questions regarding any book in his bookshop. This ability increased the customer satisfaction and encouraged their loyalty to his business. Hussain managed to build good relationship with the customers and retain the customers for their next visiting to his bookshop. Hussain had a kind personality and behaved like a sophisticated person with his teachers. His teachers used to visit his bookshop and became his valuable customers. By helping teachers to buy gifts near his bookshop, he got the inspiration of providing additional products in his bookshop. He expanded his bookshop’s products from books to gifts such as notebooks, pens, pencils, etc. Thus, his business started to satisfy all the schools’ needs and he became popular in many schools. By signing a contract with his uncle, Hussain get his new stores. He was able  to buy in bulk and became the main supplier of books to many schools. Moreover, providing the schools’ needs led him to think of the students’ needs such as bags, ruler, erasers, and sharpeners. Therefore, Hussain converted the bookshop concept to a wider concept where all the schools’, teachers’, and students’ needs were met. He expanded his target markets to teachers and students. Unfortunately, Hussain lost his bookshop due to a big fire which caused by an electric short circuit. After his secondary education, he restarted his business of supplying educational goods. Hussain employed two assistants to help him run for the bookshop business. His business started picking up and received huge demands from many schools due to the good location of his bookshop where it closed to various schools. The strategic location of his new bookshop was convenient to the customers and be the success factor of his business. At the same time, Hussain applied to work in the government as a store keeper. He could convince his sponsor to supply the needed office stationery at a low price. Since there was no specific buyer for the stationery with good system in servicing orders and delivering products, Hussain’s bookshop became the only office supplier for the government services. Many government departments, offices, and companies became his valuable customers. Thus, the high growth in demand led four times expansions to its first size of the business. Due to the need of money to cover the purchase in bulk from China, Hussain decided to sell his bookshop. When Hussain solved his financial problems, he established his new company for office supplies near the bookshop. He informed all his previous customers about his new option of setting up a company which specialized in stationery. He left his job as a store keeper and rented a small office equipped with fax and telephone. His employed two workers and found an appropriate store in a cheap location near the office. This change reduced the cost to the lowest. He started to buy stationery abroad. By applying JIT techniques, his company’s revenues and profits increased dramatically. The customer service was well managed and the  company focused on wholesale orders. Hussain leased back his ex-bookshop at a lower rental price. He reopened the bookshop in an innovative way by providing all the educational products required by individuals. He closed the new office and relocated it inside the bookshop. The bookshop served individual customers, whereas the office served wholesale orders. By doing so, Hussain’s business served for both types of customers. Moreover, the products were displayed in the bookshop and facilitated the wholesale buyers to see the products physically and test them before taking orders. The advantage of testing the products created value added to his business. Furthermore, Hussain be the first who use the new technology that just entered into the country. He bought the computer with Windows95 for reducing transaction time. It is a solution to feed all customers’ data, accelerate the delivery of customer’s orders, and get typed invoices. Hussain managed to achieve his dream of converting bookshop into a big company for office supplies. Hussain felt that he could provide new office equipment such as photocopiers, printers, and other related devices. In conclusion, Hussain’s reading habits help him to go through all the challenges and struggles in his life and make him grow faster in the business world. His business grew from the initial small chocolate business to a big company for office supplies with new technology. Hence, books are forever friends to human. Reading habits change the life of Hussain as well as his business. All leaders and successful people never stop reading. That is because the day we stop learning is the day we stop growing. There is a quote from an American academic, Charles W. Eliot, â€Å"Books are the quietest and most constant of friends, they are the most accessible and wisest of counselors, and the most patient of teachers.† The reading habits definitely can give benefits and grow us up from day to day. Thus, we should make books be our loyal friend companion. References Dictionary.com. Ambitious. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ambitious Dictionary.com. Inspiration. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/inspiration Goodreads. Quotes about reading habits. Retrieved from http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/reading-habits IndiaStudyChannel.com. (23 July 2012). How can reading habit make a difference in our lives? Retrieved from http://www.indiastudychannel.com/forum/95694-How-can-reading-habit-make-a-difference-in-our-lives.aspx Inspiration Boost. (n.d.). 8 Reasons Why Reading is so important. Retrieved from http://inspirationboost.com/8-reasons-why-reading-is-so-important Self Help 4 Self Developmet. (n.d.). Relax and Enjoy the Many Therapeutic Benefits of Reading. Retrieved from http://selfhelpfix.com/benefits-of-reading.php Lana Winter Hebert. (n.d.). Ten Benefits of Reading: Why You Should Read Every Day. Retrieved from http://www.lifehack.org/articles/lifestyle/10-benefits-reading-why-you-should-read-everyday.html